DPP-4 Inhibition by Linagliptin Attenuates Obesity-Related Inflammation and Insulin Resistance by Regulating M1/M2 Macrophage Polarization

Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) cleaves a large number of chemokine and peptide hormones involved in the regulation of the immune system. Additionally, DPP-4 may also be involved in macrophage-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of linagliptin, an inhibitor of DPP-4, on macrophage migration and polarization in white adipose tissue [...]

September 26, 2016 | 0 Comments More

Heme-Regulated eIF2{alpha} Kinase Modulates Hepatic FGF21 and Is Activated by PPAR{beta}/{delta} Deficiency

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a peptide hormone with pleiotropic effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, is considered a target for the treatment of diabetes. We investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR) β/ deficiency in hepatic FGF21 regulation. Increased Fgf21 expression was observed in the livers of PPARβ/-null mice and in mouse primary [...]

September 25, 2016 | 0 Comments More

Preventing Diabetes: Early Versus Late Preventive Interventions

Jaakko Tuomilehto, Peter E.H. SchwarzAug 1, 2016; 39:115-120I. Prevention and Progression of Diabetes Diabetes Care: Most-Read Full-Text Articles

September 24, 2016 | 0 Comments More

Fat Mass Reduction With Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Insulin Resistance in Heterozygous PPAR{gamma} Mutant Rats

Agonist-induced activation of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor- (PPAR) stimulates adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. Patients with heterozygous PPAR dominant-negative mutation develop partial lipodystrophy and insulin resistance. Inconsistent with this evidence in humans, it was reported that heterozygous PPAR knockout mice have increased insulin sensitivity and that mice with heterozygous PPAR dominant-negative mutation have normal insulin sensitivity [...]

September 24, 2016 | 0 Comments More